President of South Africa - history, legislation and interesting facts
Racial conflict between the black majority andWhite minority has become a key moment in the history of the Republic of South Africa. In the middle of the twentieth century, the apartheid regime (the policy of racial segregation) was established, which lasted until the nineties. The office of the President of South Africa was established only in the summer of 1993.
History of the President
President - the highest state post in theRepublic of South Africa. In the early nineties, between the opposing parties, negotiations began on the introduction of a democratic racial system. The date of the first presidential elections in the country's history - April 27, 1994 - was agreed in the framework of negotiations in the summer of 1993. The interim constitution was ratified several months later.
In May 1994, Nelson Mandela became the firstPresident of South Africa. With him, a new constitution was drafted and put into circulation. Mandela decided to resign, refusing to nominate his candidature for a second term. The first president supported Thabo Mbeki in his bid to become the new political leader of the Republic of South Africa.
The successor of Nelson Mandela with confidence defeatedat the elections. In 2005, he dismissed Jacob Zuma, the fourth president of South Africa. Zuma was accused of involvement in a serious corruption scandal. Later, all charges against the politician were lifted, and the then president resigned before the deadline - on September 24, 2008, T. Mbeki announced his resignation.
MPs elected the new presidentKgalema Motlanthe. He had to hold office until the next parliamentary elections. Later, Motlante replaced Jacob Zuma, who is today's president of South Africa. Zuma almost exceeded the record for the duration of government - he has been in power for more than 8 years, while one of his predecessors, Thabo Mbeki, was president for 9 years and 100 days. For a second term, Zuma was elected without a vote, since the other candidates were absent.
According to the main document of the South AfricanThe Republic, namely the constitution, the president is the head of the country, the executive branch and the commander-in-chief. The president is elected from among the deputies of the National Assembly after each election of the parliament. The term of office is 5 years, re-election can be no more than two times.
The powers of the President of the Republic of South Africa are:
- sending bills to the National Assembly for reconsideration;
- approval and signing of laws;
- sending draft laws to the Constitutional Court to decide on the compliance of the draft law with the current constitution;
- job descriptions;
- extraordinary convocation of the National Assembly, Council, Parliament;
- appointment of the composition of the commission of inquiry;
- appointment of diplomatic representatives, consuls, ambassadors;
- honoring with awards;
- the right of pardon or commutation of punishment;
- reception and recognition of diplomatic representatives of foreign countries and so on.
List of Presidents of South Africa
To date, in the Republic of South Africafour politicians managed to visit the post of president. All of them are representatives of the party African National Congress. List of Presidents of South Africa:
- Nelson Mandela (1994-1999).
- Thabo Mbeki (1999-2008).
- Kgalema Motlanthe (2008-2009).
- Jacob Zuma (2009-present time).
President of South Africa N. Mandela is one of the most famous fighters for human rights. The politician was awarded the Peace Prize. A. Nobel in 1993, but the award was handed to him in absentia, since Mandela was in prison. The general term of his imprisonment was 27 years. He is the oldest and longest-serving president of South Africa (he joined the post at the age of 76, and at the end of his political career, he was 81 years old).
As president, Nelson Mandela becamethe first black in the history of the country. First Deputy Head of State appointed Frederik Willem de Klerk, who became the last white leader of the country, and the second - Thabo Mbeki - his future successor.
During the years of being in high office NelsonMandela adopted a number of important socio-economic laws, the main purpose of which was to eliminate the social and economic inequality of South African citizens. Its key actions include:
- Introduction of free medical care for children under six years old, pregnant women, young mothers.
- Initiation of the program "Reconstruction and Development", financing housing, education, social security, health.
- Increase of budget expenditures on social payments to the population.
- Introduction of material assistance for the maintenance of black children in rural areas.
- The introduction of equality in the allocation of benefits, assistance from this time should have been provided to all needy, regardless of race, religion, and so on.
- Increase funding for education.
- Adoption of the law, according to which persons deprived of land as a result of the 1913 reform could demand the return of property.
- Protection of tenants of land plots engaged in agriculture; According to this law, citizens over 65 years old could not be deprived of land at all, and those who were younger were deprived only by a court decision.
- The introduction of grants to combat child poverty.
- The introduction of a mechanism for in-service training directly at the workplace.
- Adoption of a law that fairly regulated labor relations in enterprises.
- Adoption of the law on equal opportunities for representatives of different races for employment.
- Mass connection of residents to telephone and electric networks.
- Reconstruction of many hospitals.
- Providing unhindered access to water for citizens.
- Introduction of compulsory education for children from 6 to 14 years.
- Granting of a free food to schoolboys.
- Improvement of working conditions for miners.
- The beginning of the implementation of the course to provide all those in need with the necessary medications and vital medicines.
After retiring at the age of 81, alreadyformer President of South Africa, Nelson Mandela, began to actively call for coverage of HIV / AIDS issues, remained an honorary member of many universities. In 2001-2002, an attempt was made against him, the plan of which was frustrated. The criminals were arrested and sentenced to imprisonment.
From 1999 to 2008, Thabo occupied the post of presidentMbeki. The politician deserved an ambiguous assessment on the part of his contemporaries. He not only repeatedly denied the viral nature of AIDS, but also dismissed colleagues who do not agree with this position. The Minister of Health (the President's protege) actively opposed the spread of antiviral drugs and criticized "Western medicine". This state of affairs led to a surge in AIDS deaths, according to various estimates, during the Thabo Mbeki presidency in South Africa, from 333,000 to 365,000 sick people died.
Kgalema (Khalema) Motlante was the firstPresident of South Africa, who speaks the language of the Tswana people living in Botswana and some neighboring states. Information on his actions in high office is difficult to find - too little time a politician stayed in power (only 226 days).
Acting President of South AfricaThe Republic is Jacob Zuma. In his work he focused on the economic development of the country, fruitful international cooperation, improving the quality of life of the people and protecting the country's territory. It is known that the current president of South Africa has a negative attitude towards homosexuals. As for teenage pregnancy, the politician says that children should be selected from such mothers, and the girls themselves should be sent to receive education.
Zuma is the first president in South Africa's history whois an adherent of the traditional Zulu polygamy. He has five official wives and three unofficial wives. The politician has eighteen legitimate children.