Edible and inedible mushrooms: classification according to nutritional value
In our country there is a huge numberspecies of fungi, some of them many people have never even heard. But lovers of "quiet hunting" hunting should be careful, because among a huge number of species, many are inedible and poisonous mushrooms.
Classification of fungi
All mushrooms can be divided into three main groups according to their nutritional properties: edible, conditionally edible and inedible (poisonous).
Edible mushrooms, depending on howtaste qualities they possess, are divided into 4 more categories. Conditionally edible can contain harmful substances, but they are not forbidden to use for cooking after special treatment (soaking, cooking). And poisonous mushrooms can not be eaten at all.
Classification of this species is divided into 4 categories:
- The first - mushrooms, which are famous for their taste and do not require special treatment. It is, of course, a white fungus, a real mushroom and a red-haired one.
- The third category, as a rule, includes mushrooms,which have average taste properties, and collect them only at a time when the valuable fruits of the first or second category were not born. It includes black mushrooms, mosses, chanterelles, morels, some kinds of russules.
- The fourth category - mushrooms are not distinguished by high taste indicators, they are collected only by amateurs. This category includes meadow and summer fork, hornets, turtles, oyster mushrooms, dung beetles.
Conditionally edible mushrooms
The classification is such that this group isfruits that contain harmful and bitter substances. In addition, they may have an unpleasant taste or smell. Use them for food can only be after special treatment, boiling, soaking with changing water, boiling with the decoction. This group includes freckles, morels, black pears, stitches, pigs and some russules that have bitterness. For example, russula and morels should be cooked for five minutes, then decoction of the broth, and put out the mushrooms, fry or add to the soup.
The classification of poisonous fungi according to the mechanism of action and the degree of poisoning is as follows:
- The first group includes mushrooms, whichcause local poisoning. For example, they can lead to disturbances in the digestive system. Their action begins in about an hour, and the effects of poisoning can be observed for about two weeks. If the patient is severely weakened, then a lethal outcome is possible. This group includes a false raincoat, some types of russules, a tiger cub, etc.
- The second group includes mushrooms that provideinfluence on the nervous system of man. The first signs of poisoning can be detected in half an hour. Possible the appearance of hallucinations, attacks of crying or laughter, disorders of the digestive system, as well as loss of consciousness. To such mushrooms it is possible to carry a fly agaric, govorushki, ryadovki,
- The third group is fungi with plasmotoxicimpact on the human body. Their toxins begin to have their effect within thirty minutes, but signs of poisoning can only appear on the second day. Even if all the necessary treatment measures are taken in time, approximately 30% of cases are fatal. This group includes pale toadstool, stinky and spring fly agaric, fibrous, bile fungus.
Classification of mushrooms by edibility is very important, especially if the person in this business is a beginner.