Dysenteric amoeba: life cycle and provoked disease
In general, "dysentery" means diseaseThe digestive system, but can not be caused by one pathogen. Most often we meet with an invasive agent, such as dysentery amoeba. In Latin, this amoeba is called Entamoeba histolytica, this unicellular is an anaerobic organism (that is, oxygen is not needed for development). It is dangerous for humans and primates. Dysentery amoeba has infected at least 50 million people around the world, and therefore you need to know about the characteristics of its life.
Cats and dogs can be carriers, but their share in the transmission of the disease is negligible.
What is the life cycle of a dysentery amoeba?
Let's start with the moment when the pathogen enters thethe mouth of man. The development cycle of dysentery amoeba includes the stage of cyst (resting form) and the stage of trophozoite (active form). Cyst enters the mouth. It has four nuclei, the cell divides several times, as a result of one cyst, there are as many as eight trophozoites. In this form they migrate to the large intestine, where two fishes are obtained from a single trophozoite. Some of them form cysts and go outside with feces, the fission of the nuclei takes place inside the cyst and a finished cyst with four nuclei is prepared, ready to infect the new host. Cysts do not tolerate heating, but the moist environment is favorable for them. Without the owner can live a few months.
The other part of the amoeba penetrates through the mucous membrane into the blood, affecting the liver, brain and lungs. In the liver, amoeba can cause an abscess.
However, the dysentery amoeba delivers a lottroubles and without the defeat of the liver. Sometimes the infection does not appear externally, but over the years a person can be a carrier, can infect others. On average, 70,000 people die in the world every year from dysentery. Symptoms can be expressed as a mild stool fluid, but often it is severe diarrhea with blood and mucous particles. Liver abscess can begin without symptoms of intestinal surface damage.
Even if there are no symptoms, the carrier is dangerous,and therefore it is treated on a par with the sick. Infection is transmitted with water and food contaminated with cysts. However, simple hygiene skills can be useful. Dysentery is often confused with traveler's diarrhea. The latter is not caused by dysenteric amoeba, but by viruses or bacteria.
Let's talk about security measures. They are not very complex, and their knowledge is very important. What can I do to keep my dysentery amoeba out of my mouth?
- After a toilet or changing diapers, the child should wash his hands for at least 10 seconds with soap under water, as hot as you can stand it. Before eating, your hands should also be washed;
- Often, wash the toilet, especially often - the lid and seat, that's where the dysentery amoeba loves to be;
- In countries with unfavorable conditions, do not consume raw vegetables and fruits;
- Water in hot countries you can drink only boiled or with special tablets of iodine, a variant - citric acid;
- You can not drink mineral alkaline water in "bad" countries;
- Do not share a towel with anyone;
- Do not eat in unfavorable countries cooked food on the street, and even treat the restaurants with caution. If you do not like something - do not even go.
In 90% of cases, the infection does not show symptoms, so if you go to, say, Mexico, check after traveling to the carriage, especially if your profession does not require regular physical examinations.
Very often the disease begins to manifest itself throughyear after infection. Amoeba lives in the lumen of the intestine and feeds on other bacteria, as well as food particles, and mucus does not allow it to gain a foothold on the intestinal wall.
Infection is treated with metronidazole and some other drugs. Infections can be avoided. Do not risk your health and life.