A compound nominal predicate: examples. Types of predicates
In this article we will talk about the types of predicates, we will dwell in detail on the compound nominal and its bundles, we give examples.
As you know, the grammatical basis of allThe sentences constitute the predicate and the subject are the main terms. The predicate is usually consistent in the person, gender and number with the subject. It expresses the grammatical meaning of the indicative, imperative or conditional mood.
The main types of predicates:
1) simple verb;
2) compound verbal;
3) compound nominal predicate (examples see below).
Two principles for distinguishing the types of predicates
They are divided according to two principles. Types of predicates are classified as follows:
1) by composition;
2) by their morphological nature.
In the first case, types such as simpleand composite. The latter includes compound nominal and verbal predicates. Based on the second principle, the nominal and the verbal are distinguished. The nominal part of the compound predicate can be expressed by an adjective, a noun and an adverb. These divisions intersect. Thus, a verbal predicate can be compound or simple, and a nominal one is always a composite predicate.
A simple verbal predicate
A simple verbal predicate, the definitionwhich, as you will see, has some nuances, expresses the verb in conjugated form, that is, it is used in the form of an inclination (indicative, conditional or imperative). Also, it includes such options, which lack a formal indicator of time, inclination and submission to the subject. These are truncated forms of the verb (praise, sense, bang, etc.), as well as an infinitive used in the meaning of the indicative mood. In addition, a simple verbal predicate can be represented by phraseological turnover, as well as the conjugated form of the verb + modal particle (c'mon, yes, let it be as if, like, just like, just that, etc.)
The compound nominal predicate
As already mentioned, the nominal type is alwayscomponent, including those cases where it is represented by only one wordform. Despite the fact that the word expressing it is only one, there is a compound nominal predicate in such sentences. Examples include the following: "He is young, he is concerned about work, cares."
Such predicates always have twocomponent. The first is a bunch that expresses the predicative categories of time and modality. The second is the connecting part, it shows the real main content of this type of predicate.
Bundle in the compound nominal predicate
The doctrine of a bunch in Russian science about syntaxis developed in detail. The peculiarity of the traditional approach is that this term is widely understood. The link, firstly, is the word "to be", the only meaning of which is an indication of time and modality. Secondly, it is called verbs with a modified and weakened in one way or another meaning, which express not only predicative categories, but also put the material content in such a predicate.
Compare the examples: he was sad - he seemed (became) sad - he returned sad.
In the first sentence, a bunch of "to be"This is a service word, formant, in which there are grammatical forms of time and inclination, which is characteristic of the verb. However, it is not a verb, since it does not have a procedural effect or attribute, and also the category of the species that any of them possesses.
Significant and semi-significant ligaments
In other examples, ligaments of a different type- significant and semi-significant. The latter make the value of the appearance of the sign (become / become), its preservation (remain / remain), external detection (seem / seem), the inclusion of an external medium (to be known / heard, called, reckoned) into a compound nominal predicate.
Examples can be given the following: he became clever - he remained intelligent - he seemed intelligent - he was known to be intelligent.
Signs are verbswith a specific, specific meaning (basically denoting movement or staying in a particular state). They are able to attach either a noun in T. with the value of a qualitative characteristic, or an adjective in the form of T. or I.p.
Proposals with a compound nominal predicate with significant links can be cited as an example:
1. He came hungry (hungry).
2. The boys remained tomboy.
Bundle of "being"
The bundle of "being", being abstract, has nothe indicative mood of the present tense, and therefore its expression in this inclination is the very absence of a bundle. Such proposals, oddly enough, also have a compound nominal predicate. Examples:
1. It's pointless.
2. The evening is wonderful.
3. The road is good.
The verb "to be" should be distinguished from the bundle, which has two meanings:
1. To be, to be present (We were at the theater, at that time there were a lot of performances).
2. Have (The sister had a doll).
Bundles "essence" and "is"
The words "essence" and "is", which go back to the forms of the present tense of the third person of the verb "to be", in modern language are considered official words, namely, particles.
The absence of a bundle is called its zero form. This definition was formulated by AM Peshkovsky, it was the first attempt to study syntactic phenomena in the paradigmatic aspect. The introduction of this concept means that the syntactic construction (that is, the predicative basis of some nominal two-component sentence) is not studied as such in isolation, but in a specific series. This is illustrated by the following examples:
1. The street will (was) crowded.
2. The street would be crowded.
3. The street is crowded.
Composite verb predicate
We have considered such types of predicates as simpleverbal and compound noun. Let us now dwell in more detail on the compound verbal predicate. It includes two components - the infinitive and the conjugated verb form. The latter, by its grammatical form and lexical meaning, expresses the temporal, modal and aspectual characteristics of some action, which is indicated by an infinitive. Infinitive to themselves can attach verbs related to several semantic groups (wanted to work, started working, came to work, forced to work).
Rules for the definition of a compound verbal predicate
The compound predicate, according to the grammatical tradition, is not any connection with the infinitive of the conjugated form. In order to be able to talk about it, two requirements must be met:
1. An infinitive in such a predicate denotes not any action, but only of a certain substance, the same as the conjugated verb form, that is, of some object called the subject.
Examples can be given the following. On the one hand, he wanted to work, he started working, he can work, he can work. On the other hand, his parents forced him to work, they all asked the girl to sing, the boss ordered to carry out the assignment. In the first case, in which composite verbal predicates are presented, the infinitive is called subjective, since it denotes the action of some substance, the same as the conjugated verb form. In the second case, there is an object infinitive, which is traditionally not included in the compound predicate, but is spoken of as a secondary term.
2. Determining the composite predicate boundary, one should take into account the character that has the semantic relationship between the infinitive and the conjugated verb form. Infinitive with the meaning of the goal is not included in it. He has such meaning under different verbs of motion: came to work, went to chat, ran to find out, sent to find out. The infinitive of the goal (which can be, as is clear from examples, both objective and subjective) is a secondary term. A compound predicate should be considered only the infinitive compounds with verbs most abstract in meaning (with modal and phase).
The compound verbal predicate, therefore,is understood as a designation of an action, a certain procedural feature that is characterized in aspects of the legal (started to work) or modal (wanted to work) plan, or simultaneously in both of them (wanted to start working).
We examined the main types of predicates,having stopped in detail on the compound nominal and various bundles that are present in it. This is just a brief overview of this topic, more detailed information can be found in any grammar book in the syntax section.