The liberation of Ukraine from the Nazi invaders (1943-1944)
The Great Patriotic War took millionslives. People stood behind their country and fought for the freedom of future generations. Each country of the former Soviet Union keeps its history of significant battles and of the day when the fascists were expelled from its territory.
Today, the liberation of Ukraine from the Nazi invaders is celebrated on October 28.
The cruel beginning
Liberation of Ukraine in 1943-1944.demanded real heroism, dedication and patriotism from soldiers and the whole people. First, let us recall where everything started, and then we will return to victories and the last battles for the Motherland.
In 1940, Hitler signed an attack planon the USSR. He had a great name "Barbarossa". The Germans had to strike at the three main strategic targets of the indestructible union: Leningrad, Smolensk and Ukraine. According to the plan of the leader of the fascist invaders, the territory of Ukraine was to become a huge field for agriculture. It was these lands that would feed the Reich.
On the night of June 22, 1941, the Ukrainian SSR fell underbombing of the German air forces. Sevastopol, Zhytomyr, Kiev and Izmail received the first blows. Following the air attacks, German ground forces burst into the cities.
A long bloody war began. The liberation of Ukraine from the fascists will only happen in three years. These years will be marked by woes, hunger and washed by bitter tears of the entire Ukrainian people.
The Second World War continues.The liberation of Ukraine was waged not only by the forces of the Soviet Army. In June 1942, the Ukrainian headquarters of the partisan movement was created, which inflicted many defeats on the enemy. The railways were destroyed, staffs were destroyed, various diversions were carried out. This provided serious assistance to the active forces.
The liberation of Ukraine from the German-fascistThe invaders were marked by the first victory in the winter of 1942. The settlement in Ukraine - the village of Pivnevka in Lugansk region - was liberated by Soviet soldiers from Germans on 18.12.1942.
14/02/1943 the Nazis were driven from Lugansk. During the operation, more than 10,000 Soviet soldiers were killed.
The turning point in the war is the Battle of Kursk
It is believed that the main battle for liberationUkraine from the German invaders began with a turning point during the famous Battle of Kursk, which lasted from 05.07 to 23.08 1943. In scale it was one of the most important battles of the Second World War. The battle lasted heavy for 49 days. It was then that our soldiers significantly weakened the might and spirit of the German soldiers. The fascists quickly revised the plans for military operations.
After a bitter battle, the enemy battalions switched todefensive position throughout the Soviet-German front. They not only had to throw out our soldiers, but they were compelled to protect all the significant economic centers that were recently conquered with pomp.
The Importance of Left Bank Ukraine for the Fascists
One such strategically important areafocused on the Left Bank Ukraine. Especially valuable were the industrial and coal enterprises located in the basin of Donetsk, which is significant from the point of view of the raw materials base. Our soldiers needed to defeat a significant enemy army, which numbered 700,000 people. At their disposal was a powerful military equipment in the number of 7,200 mortars and guns, 900 military aircraft, and 1,200 tank troopers. After regrouping the troops, the Soviet government ordered the liberation of Ukrainian territory.
The liberation of the left-bank Ukraine
The Supreme High Command clearly understood,that just so Hitler will not give up significant milestones. Enemy detachments could not be given time for restoration, it was necessary to advance urgently to the south, until the fascists came to their senses and gathered with new forces after the defeat during the fighting in the Kursk Bulge. Everyone knew that the liberation of this territory of the USSR will have a protracted character. Ukraine left-bank ordered to release the most powerful fronts: South-West, Steppe, Central and Voronezh. The task posed was not just liberation, but also the crossing of the Dnieper in numerous territories. It was necessary to force the Hitlerites to smash their troops and stretch out over large territories, so it would be much easier to defeat the enemy. Three front united 1,500,000 people, who were determined only to win. In the arsenal of our troops there were 30,000 units of artillery pieces, 1,700 military aircraft and 1,180 tanks.
August 23, 1943 - Kharkov was liberated by the forces of our soldiers.
August 30, 1943 - Taganrog was released.
Liberation of Donbass
During the approach to Donbass Russian troopsconsisted of two notable fronts: the South-West and the South. There were about 1100 thousand people, 1500 planes, 1500 tanks. The detachments of the Soviet troops turned toward the west.
08.09.1943 - The South-Western Front, which was headed by Malinovsky, was liberated by Donetsk.
10.09.1943 - Mariupol received the freedom. Liberation of Ukraine in 1943-1944. was in full swing.
September 22, 1943 - our soldiers threw the fascists behind the Dnieper in the Dnepropetrovsk-Zaporozhye section. This date is considered the day of liberation of Donbass.
During the bloody cruel battles especiallymarked the actions of the 34th Guards Division. Sixteen of her soldiers were awarded the title Heroes of the USSR. The 126th Gorlovskaya Rifle Division also distinguished itself - the Heroes received seventeen of its fighters. In addition to them, the Heroes' title was given to 80 more soldiers and commanders of various fronts for mass heroism in the liberation of Donbass. The pilots D.B. Glinka and O.I. Pokryshkin, also Heroes of the USSR, received the second honorary medal "Gold Star" for the battle for the Donbass.
Retreating, the Germans destroyed everything without pity and regret in their path: they burned houses and factories, poisoned the water in wells, and finished off the prisoners.
Battle of the Dnieper. Chernihiv-Poltava battles
The battle for the Dnieper - interrelated operations during the Second World War, conducted along the banks of the Dnieper. The movement began in the autumn of 1943 and lasted for 4 months.
The first stage was fighting along the line Chernigov-Poltava on August 26-30-30, 1943, in which 2 tank armies, Voronezh, Central and Steppe fronts took part.
August 27, 1943 - expulsion of the fascists from the city of Sevsk.
09/03/1943 - Taking Konotop, cleaning the Sejm River from the Nazis.
09/02/1943 - liberation of the Sumy.
09/04/1943 - Taking the city of Merefa.
09/15/1943 - The city of Nezhinsk is released.
09/16/1943 - Germans expelled from Novgorod-Seversk.
09/21/1943 - Our soldiers entered Chernigov.
09/23/1943 - after a successful assault Poltava was taken.
During the first battles on the Dnieper, more than 100,000 Soviet soldiers were killed, hundreds were awarded the title of Heroes of the Soviet Union for their courage and dedication.
The next stage of the battle for the main river of Ukraine - fighting in the lower reaches from 26.09.1943 to 20.12.1943. They were conducted by the forces of the South, South-West and Steppe Fronts.
10/14/1943 - the liberation of Zaporozhye.
10/23/1943 - a successful battle for Melitopol.
10/25/1943 - Soviet troops entered Dnepropetrovsk and Dneprodzerzhinsk.
10/30/1943 - Genichesk is released.
In total, during the Nizhnedneprovsky operation, more than 170,000 soldiers of the Soviet Army were killed. Success in the battle for the Dnieper created conditions for the liberation of Kiev.
Liberation of Kiev
The Red Army was advancing rapidly. The 1st Ukrainian Front (formerly Voronezh) concentrated the main strike forces on the outskirts of Kiev. Before the troops was set a difficult task to clean the city of the German invaders to the anniversary of the revolution of 1917. At that time, the First Ukrainian Front numbered about 665,000 soldiers, up to 7,000 mortars and guns, 675 tanks and artillery, and 700 combat aircraft.
In order to distract the enemy on November 1, Redthe army launched a fictitious offensive from the Bukrin bridgehead. The present offensive began on 03.11.43 from the Lutezh bridgehead and lasted 10 days. Together with the Soviet soldiers bravely fought Czechoslovak soldiers. Courage and heroism were shown in the battle for Kiev not only by the active forces of the Red Army, but also by local underground and partisans who conducted dangerous reconnaissance operations and supplied the army with valuable information on the deployment of enemy troops. Great support was from local residents. They helped our soldiers to melt through the Dnieper, pointed out to them bypasses.
06.11.43 Kiev was taken. In Moscow, a salute was arranged in honor of the liberation of this city. The courage of hundreds of soldiers was marked by medals and orders.
11/07/1943 - the release of Fastov.
13.11.43 - Zhytomyr was released.
During the Kiev operation the forces of the Red Army werethe winter was advancing, the supply worsened considerably due to the stretch of the front line. Therefore, during the renovation of troops and rearmament from 13.11 to 22.12.43, the so-called Kiev defensive operation was conducted. Its main task was to keep positions in Kiev. Unfortunately, several strong points, including Zhitomir, were repeatedly captured by the fascists. Nevertheless, Kiev managed to keep.
How Right Bank Ukraine won
The liberation of the Right-Bank Ukraine waswas produced during the Dnieper-Carpathian operation from 24.12.43 to 17.04.44. It was held in several stages. The first stage is the Zhytomiro-Berdichevskaya operation (24.12.43-14.01.44) and the Kirovograd offensive (05-16.01.1944) by forces of the 1st and 2nd Ukrainian fronts. In their course, the White Church, Berdichev, Novograd-Volynsky, Radomyshl were liberated.
12/31/1943 - Zhytomyr was again released. This date became memorable for the city. In honor of the liberation of Zhytomyr in Moscow salute from 224 guns.
08.01.1944 - the date of liberation of Kirovograd.
By 11/01/1944 our army had advanced considerably along the front line and had reached Vinnitsa, Zhmerinka, Zhashkova and Uman.
For a breather, the troops were given an order to stop the offensive and keep defensive positions until January 16.
This operation was the next stepThe Dnieper-Carpathian operation. It was held from 24.01 to 17.02.1944. The forces of the 1st and 2nd fronts took part in the battles. Chronology of the liberation of settlements from fascists:
26.01.1944 - Kapitonovka, Rossokhovatna,
January 27 - Shpola, Water, Lipyanka, Mezhyhirya,
January 28 - Zvenigorodka, Steblev,
January 30 - Kvitki,
February 06 - Olszak,
09 February - Ancient settlement,
February 14 - Korsun-Shevchenko.
The fighting was very heavy. The Germans fiercely resisted, so success was replaced by defeats. According to the rate, the operation was delayed, so the commander of the 1st Front Vatutin was removed, and in his place the order appointed General Konev.
During the Korsun-Shevchenko operation, 47 thousandGerman soldiers were surrounded. On February 17, the enemy launched a breakthrough from the "cauldron". Although a small part of the Germans did break out, the main forces were crushed. In total, during this operation, 80,000 Soviet soldiers were killed. For the successful completion of the operation, Konev was given the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union.
The offensive of the Red Army in February-April 1944
The liberation of Ukraine from the fascistThe invaders continued. From early February to mid-April, the USSR Army carried out a number of successful offensives, as a result of which almost the whole of the Right-Bank Ukraine was cleared from the German invaders.
Rivne-Lutsk operation was carried out by forces of the 1stfront from 27.01 to 11.02.44. Following the results of long battles on February 2, Germans were cleared of Lutsk and Rivne, and 11.02 and an important strategic point Shepetivka.
30.01-29.02.44 - Nikopol-Krivorozhskoe offensive, the 3rd and 4th Ukrainian fronts took part. Fought for the Krivoy Rog and Nikopol footholds. These areas were very important for fascist Germany, since here mining of iron and manganese ore was conducted. Nikopol was released on February 8, and Krivoy Rog - on the 22nd.
04.03-17.04 and 05.03-17.04.For 44 years, two parallel operations were conducted: Proskurovo-Chernovitskaya and Umansko-Botoshanskaya. The troops of the 1st and 2nd fronts of Ukraine were involved in them. They were released: 10.03 - Uman, 15.03 - Dubno, 18.03 - Zhmerinka, 19.03 - Mogilev-Podolsky, 20.03 - Vinnitsa, 21.03 - Khmilnik, 23.03 - Chortkiv, 26.03 - Beltsy, 29.03 - Chernivtsi. Our soldiers quickly took the river Prut and crossed the borders of Romania. The right flank of the 2 Ukrainian Front came very close to the foothills of the Carpathians.
At the same time, fighting was conducted in a southerly direction. From 06 to 18 March the troops of the 3 Ukrainian Front carried out the Bereznegovato-Snigirevskaya operation, as a result of which the enemy was defeated in the interfluve of the Southern Bug and Ingulza, and a number of settlements were liberated from the fascists. 18.03.44. Our soldiers went to Nikolayev, who was released on March 28. On April 10, 1944, as a result of the Odessa operation, a large Black Sea port, Odessa, was liberated. The day of liberation of Ukraine was approaching.
In the west direction
From 13.07 to 29.08.44 hot fights were held with the participation of soldiers of the 1st and 4th fronts of Ukraine for the liberation of Western Ukraine. The city of Galich was released on July 24. With the support of Polish partisans, on July 27, Soviet troops took Stanislav, Lviv and Peremyshl. The first stage of the offensive was completed.
The second stage began on the night of July 28 withoffensive movement of Soviet soldiers along the Vistula River. The fighting was difficult, for every town and village the soldiers fought desperately, the Stavka used all the reserve forces in the operation. As a result, on August 29 an extensive Sandomir bridgehead was created. And day and night our troops fought for holding the lines and further expansion of the bridgehead.
The final stage in the liberation of Ukraine
For the liberation of the Carpathians and Transcarpathian Ukrainewas involved in the 4th Ukrainian Front. Together with the units of the First Ukrainian Front, he launched an offensive in the Carpathian direction. Progress ahead significantly slowed down the stubborn resistance of the Hungarian army. During the stubborn fighting on August 5, 1944, Striy was liberated, on August 6 - Drogobych.
In the mountain-wooded region of the Carpathians it was difficultTo fight, the strength of the soldiers were exhausted, there was not enough armament. In these conditions, the Stavka ordered from August 15th the soldiers of the 4th Front of Ukraine to take a defensive position. At the main headquarters, in the meantime, a decisive offensive operation was being developed.
During the Eastern Carpathian operation from 08.09 to 28.10.44 the whole of Western Ukraine was cleared of the invaders. Now the entire Ukrainian SSR turned out to be free. The Soviet Army in this operation lost about 300 thousand soldiers, about 2 thousand guns, more than 1,000 tanks and about 300 aircraft.
10/28/1944 - the date of liberation of Ukraine from the Nazis.
Again the world
October 28, the liberation of Ukraine 1944of the year. People joyfully met the liberators. The Ukrainian territories were destroyed by 2/3, industry and agriculture had to be raised practically from the zero level. Re-evacuation was delayed, the government in the Kremlin did not want to return industrial capacities, which were well established in the east of the USSR. Only Donbass received a financial base for the reconstruction of its factories. The war was still going on, so steel and coal were a strategically important resource for the front. The majority of able-bodied men were at war, so mostly women and teenagers worked. Their forces at first, and later with the help of soldiers returning from the war, Ukraine literally rose from the ashes.
In 2014, the 70th anniversary of liberation was celebratedUkraine from the German invaders. Veterans were honored, flowers were laid at the foot of the monuments of the deceased, a minute of silence was honored by those tortured in concentration camps. The liberation of Ukraine from the Nazi invaders was not easy. In the battles hundreds of thousands of soldiers were killed, as many peaceful Ukrainians fell victims to German punishers. Their feat, courage, selfless love to the Fatherland and a happy day of liberation of Ukraine should not be forgotten.