Environmental safety at the enterprise. Ecology of production
Labor protection and industrial ecology inthe modern world - a question not only of image, but also orders, and taxes, which, as a consequence, directly affects the income of companies. Further, let us examine in more detail the impact of organizations on the state of the environment. The article will also provide the main provisions that determine the provision of environmental safety in the enterprise.
Environmental safety at the enterprise isa certain set of measures. Their goal is to bring its activities to compliance with environmental regulations and increase its profitability. It is understood that the organization that uses energy and resource-saving processes, increases its effectiveness, and in addition, reduces the impact of harmful substances both on workers themselves and on the environment. Correspondence with Russian and European economists makes the company more competitive, as it gives an opportunity to participate in more different projects. The fact is that the ecology of production is very important for foreign customers, and when choosing an executor it is almost a decisive factor.
Technologies do not stand still, but becauseIndustrial ecology and safety require constant modernization of capacities. In order for the owner to know what and how to change, a special audit is conducted every five years. In the case of reconstruction, studies are conducted much more often. During the audit, measurements are made, as well as an assessment of production processes that affect the environment and employees of the enterprise. Based on the received data, the owner is given instructions on how to organize the technology and reduce pollution. In addition, measures for the environmental safety of the enterprise provide for the installation of treatment facilities and the appropriate modernization of production.
In Russia, environmental safety at theenterprise is directly connected with money. Companies pay a tax on emissions: the more of them, the higher the amount. In case of failure to audit or exceeding the established standards of pollution, penalties are imposed. In general, to be "dirty" yourself more. By the way, the influence of harmful substances not only on the environment, but also on the workers of the organization is taken into account. Therefore, if it turns out that the ecology of production is not sufficiently organized, the company may not pass the certification. As a result, in addition to fine, the organization can also receive a ban on work until the causes are eliminated.
Sources of pollution
Speaking of harmful emissions, many at oncerepresent the smoking chimneys of a certain plant. However, everything is not so unambiguous. Environmental pollution means not only gas mixtures, but also sewage, as well as noise. Scientifically speaking, industrial ecology deals with the study of this subject. Wastes can accumulate in the enterprise. By them are meant compounds that are released into the air, into the water. They also include solids, noise, thermal and electromagnetic beams formed as a result of the production of raw materials from products. All this has a negative impact on the environment. There are two types of sources of pollution. Under the first one understands directly the technological process of production. Under the second - technical systems and devices, that is, pipes, drainage, through which the environment and waste. Sources of emissions are of two types. If the enterprise has special systems that affect the environment - these are organized sources. If the waste is simply stored, then it is unorganized.
Environmental safety in the enterpriseis calculated in a certain way. If there are organized wastes, measurements are made on pipes, drains and other systems. When unorganized, the gross emission and its capacity are calculated, as well as the size of the production itself, from which the pollution is produced. The obtained data is entered into special computer programs, which are the implementation of the mathematical model of Professor Berlandt. They, taking into account the wind rose, the relief features, meteorological conditions, as well as the impact on the ecology of other capacities, calculate the calculation model. According to these calculations, recommendations and instructions are given, which must be fulfilled for the further operation of production.
At full confidence
Any enterprise in Russia, according tolegislation, to implement its activities should develop a whole system of engineering and technical documentation. In it, the organization should clearly indicate the maximum permissible and temporarily agreed amount of emissions, discharges and limits of waste disposal. According to these data, environmental safety at the enterprise, the impact of capacities on the hydrosphere, the atmosphere and the environment in general are assessed. The reliability of these documents, as mentioned earlier, is checked every five years during the audit.
Having received instructions, the enterprise undertakesindependently, without supervision, to follow it, up to the next check. That is, there is a kind of presumption of innocence, the organization is considered law-abiding, until the opposite is proven. But this does not mean that after passing the test, you can live peacefully for the next few years. The fact is that local and federal supervisors can conduct an audit at any time. And as planned, and spontaneous, provoked by local residents, complaining, for example, to excessive noise or gas contamination.
Once again about money
Environmental safety of the enterpriseis assessed at the local level by the sanitary and epidemiological supervision bodies. On the federal - environmental prosecutor's office. Owners of production should take into account that these organizations easily write out fines, ranging from several tens of thousands of rubles to millions, and close production until the causes are eliminated. In the event of a ban on the functioning of the organization, it will still be necessary to pay for violation of the norms. By the way, about the norms. They are calculated according to the results of the environmental audit in accordance with the regulations of the Law on Environmental Protection. At the same time, the results of the studies, which are presented in both textual and graphic form, imply the worst development of events in the industry. That is, the owner is interested in constant modernization of the facilities in order to reduce the amount of waste, since the more of them, the higher the tax that is assigned for pollution of the environment.
Another factor that should pushenterprises to the implementation of environmental safety standards, is the attitude of foreign investors to this issue. It's no secret that the theme of environmental protection in the last twenty years in Europe and America is very popular. Of course, in fact, the cost of the order is important to foreign partners. However, given the public mood, they have to carefully choose a contractor, relying on the environmental friendliness of production. This is more due to the fact that if information (and it always appears in the media, sooner or later, due to competitors) that the production of the goods caused great harm to nature, it will damage the image of the company. This, in turn, is fraught with a decline in the share price, and in the worst case - boycotting by consumers of manufactured products.
Health Above All
As can be seen from all of the above, the environmentalsecurity at the enterprise is, above all, a matter of finance. And we have not yet considered this issue from the point of view of the staff. Harmful production implies high salaries, additional payments, frequent hospital and large holidays. At the same time, it is still necessary to constantly spend money on training the personnel in occupational safety according to law at least once every six months. In general, it is cheaper to keep workers at a "clean" enterprise. In addition to mercantile interest, there is, so to speak, moral. Leave the dirt where you live, or your employees, at least ashamed. Let not before contemporaries, but before descendants. Who knows, perhaps, in the future, a dangerous enterprise will have to live with the children of its owner.