PAL or NTSC - which is better, what is the difference? Standards of television broadcasting
Today, TV broadcasting offers the latest formatsplayback, but still you can regularly hear about such standards as PAL or NTSC. What is better and what is the difference between them? To understand this, you need to get an idea of each of these standards.
What is NTSC?
So, many American video recordershave the format of NTSC. What it is? Today it is a color coding system used by DVD players. Until recently, it was used by broadcasters in North America, Japan and much of South America.
As color TVs beganreplace black and white, developers began to use several different methods of color coding for broadcast. However, these methods contradicted each other and old black and white TVs, which could not interpret the color signals transmitted by them. In 1953, the National Television Systems Committee of the United States adopted the NTSC standard, which was developed and implemented as one. From that moment it became possible to use it all over the country, as it became compatible with a large number of different TVs. Currently, it is still possible to meet NTSC. What does it mean? Despite the fact that modern TV is no longer using this format, they can still accept and distinguish it.
What is the PAL format?
Before deciding on the choice, which is better - PAL or NTSC, you need to understand what they differ from each other.
The PAL format is a color coding system used by DVD players and broadcasters in Europe, most of Asia and Oceania, Africa and parts of South America.
Formatting the Phase Alternating Line or PAL,along with the SECAM standard (formerly used in Russia and the CIS, the image in this method is broadcast as a sequential color with memory), was developed in the late 1950s to circumvent certain shortcomings of the NTSC system.
Since NTSC encodes color, this means thatthe signal may lose clarity in poor conditions, so early systems created on this format were vulnerable in bad weather, in large buildings, and under the influence of several other factors. To solve this problem, a video format PAL was created. It works as follows - during translation it changes every second line in the signal, effectively eliminating errors.
Unlike NTSC, PAL is still often used for on-air broadcasting in the regions in which it was adopted.
PAL or NTSC: what is better to use?
Many video editing programs, for example, VideoStudio, allow you to choose in which format to save the result of work when writing to DVD.
Which format should you use, basicallydepends on your location. If you create videos that will be displayed around the world, NTSC of your choice is more secure and comfortable. Most DVD players and other devices that work with PAL format can play NTSC video, whereas NTSC players usually do not support PAL.
Why are these formats still used?
The main answer is that today they areare not what they were originally created. It is obvious that the technical problems for which these coding systems were created in the 1950s are not applicable to the modern world. However, DVDs are still labeled as supporting NTSC or PAL (which is better to buy and why - read above), and the timings, resolutions and refresh rates installed in these systems are still used in modern TVs and monitors.
The main reason for this is the regionalization of content. The use of various video formats acts as a layer of physical protection to strengthen national copyright laws, and to prevent the distribution of films and TV programs in different countries without permission. In fact, this is the use of formats as a legal method for copyright protection. This phenomenon is so common that the distribution areas for video games and other interactive electronic media are often referred to as NTSC and PAL regions, although such software works fine on any type of display.
Formats PAL, NTSC: what is the difference from the technical side?
TVs show their images in rowsand create the illusion of movement, displaying them slightly changed, many times per second. A broadcast signal for a black and white television simply indicated the level of brightness at each point along the line, so each frame was just a signal with luminance information for each line.
Initially, the TVs displayed 30 frames insecond (FPS). However, when color was added to wide-format broadcasting, black and white TVs could not distinguish color information from brightness information, so they tried to display the color signal as part of the image. As a result, it became meaningless, and there was a need to introduce a new TV standard.
To display a color without the appearance of thisproblems, it was necessary to add a second chrominance signal between the luminance signal fluctuations, which would be ignored by black and white TVs, and the color devices would look for it and display it using an adapter called Colorplexer.
Since this additional signal was addedbetween each update of the frame, it increased the amount of time for their replacement, and the actual FPS on the display was reduced. Therefore NTSC TV reproduces 29.97 frames per second instead of 30.
In turn, the PAL signal uses 625 lines,of which 576 (known as a 576i signal) are displayed as visible lines on the TV, while the formatted NTSC signal uses 525 lines, of which 480 appear to be visible (480i). In the PAL video, each second line has a phase of changing the color signal, which results in the fact that they equalize the frequency between the lines.
What does it mean?
In terms of effect, this means that damageThe signal appears as a saturation error (color level), not a hue (a hue of color), as would be the case with an NTSC video. This led to a more accurate picture of the original image. At the same time, the PAL signal loses some vertical color resolution, making the colors at the junction of the lines a little blurry, although this effect is not visible to the unaided human eye. On modern DVD the signal is no longer encoded on the basis of connecting lines, therefore there are no differences in frequencies and phases between these two formats.
The only real difference is the resolution and the frame rate with which the video is played.
Convert from NTSC to PAL and vice versa
If the video in PAL is converted to NTSC tape,you need to add 5 additional frames per second. Otherwise, the image may appear intermittent. For the NTSC-movie, converted to PAL, the reverse rules apply. Five frames per second should be deleted, or the action on the screen may seem unnaturally slow.
PAL and NTSC on high definition televisions
For television there is a wide analogsystem, therefore, despite the fact that digital signals and high definition (HD) become a universal standard, their variations remain. The primary visual difference between NTSC and PAL systems for HDTV is the refresh rate. NTSC updates the screen 30 times per second, and the PAL system - 25 frames per second. For some types of content, especially high-resolution images (for example, generated by 3D animation), high-definition TVs using the PAL system may exhibit a slight "flicker" trend. However, the image quality is NTSC, and most people will not notice any problems.
On a DVD signal, the signal is not encoded based on thecarrier wave, so there are no differences in frequencies and phases between the two formats. The only real difference is the resolution and frame rate (25 or 30) with which the video is played.