Classification of respiratory failure by type, pathogenesis, etiopathogenetic factors
Respiratory failure, the classification of which is built in view of many components, is a disease that leads to insufficient gas exchange in the body.
Classification of respiratory failure by type
- Obstructive type. It arises because of the narrowing of the vessels through which the air moves. This condition is possible with bronchitis, obstructive lung disease.
- Restrictive type. It is associated with a decrease in the respiratory surface of the lung. This can happen with tuberculosis, pneumonia, some other diseases.
- The mixed type.
Classification of the course of the disease
- Chronic. It has been developing for many years. Its cause are diseases that gradually affect the lungs or bronchi, the nervous system or muscles. First manifested in mild dyspnea. Later dyspnea intensifies, cyanosis develops, heart function worsens.
- Acute respiratory failure. The classification says that in acute attacks a person feels a sharp choking. The skin turns blue, the pressure rises sharply, then falls off just as quickly. Symptoms are growing very quickly. Possible mental disorders against the background of the development of suffocation. The causes may be trauma, cold or viral diseases, poisoning.
Classification of respiratory failure according to etiopathogenetic factors
- Bronchopulmonary. Can be obstructive, restrictive, diffusive. The latter develops as a consequence of pulmonary fibrosis, thromboembolism, malformations.
- Neuromuscular. It develops against the background of malfunctioning of muscles, defeat of motoneurons, nerve endings.
- Centrogenic.Most often observed with brain injuries, disorders of consciousness. The special danger lies in the fact that, in addition to the malfunctioning of the breathing center located in the brain, the patient is threatened with the sinking of the tongue, the clogging of the respiratory tract with blood, the contents of the stomach.
- Thoracodiafragmal arises from injuries of the chest, impairment of its mobility and capacity.
The severity of the disease
- At the initial degree (first) dyspnea is seen only in a state of increased physical exertion.
- The second is characterized by severe shortness of breath with habitual and minor stresses.
- The strongest third degree: dyspnea in a state of complete rest.
By the type of gas exchange disorder
- Hypoxaemic, in which the level of oxygen in the arterial blood decreases.
- Hypercapnia, which most often develops in bronchitis and other diseases.
There are some other factors that canclassification of respiratory failure. Physicians also distinguish several types of disease, given its pathogenesis. From this point of view, diffuse ventilation and mixed insufficiency are distinguished.