PCT (blood test). Decoding of PCT
Various inflammatory processes sometimesIt is impossible to determine without laboratory testing. For this purpose, doctors prescribe clinical, biochemical analyzes of biological materials. Why do I have to take a blood test for PCT?
What is PCT?
In our body by state, contentsome substances can determine or deny the presence of any disease. Especially informative blood test in this regard. Another substance that helps to make a correct diagnosis is procalcitonin (PCT), which precedes the formation of calcitonin. In turn, calcitonin is an indicator of calcium metabolism in the body and a substance for diagnosing thyroid cancer.
Procalcitonin is produced by C-cellsthyroid gland. Due to chemical reactions, PCT is converted into calcitonin. In healthy people, this process occurs almost without residues, that is, PCT does not have time to enter the bloodstream. That is why only traces of this substance are determined in the blood, which both show the necessary information about the state of human health.
Unlike the subsequent calcitonin hormone, PCT is necessary for the diagnosis of certain types of infectious diseases or inflammatory processes.
What material is used for analysis?
For what reason does this increase in blood?
The analysis for procalcitonin or PCT is a biochemical study that is important in determining the severity of sepsis and the systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome (CVS).
- Procalcitonin in the blood is elevated for infections that do not have a viral etiology. This phenomenon is evident in bacterial sepsis.
- Serious injuries, burns, surgical interventions give impetus to increase PCT after two to three days.
- In people taking immunosuppressants, as well as other drugs in which anti-inflammatory cytokines are released, a high percentage of procalcitonin is often found.
- In newborns in the first two days after birth, PCT rises. The analysis of blood, decoding, the norm in other babies has no peculiarities.
- A prolonged and severe cardiogenic shock shows elevated figures when tested for this test.
- Disturbances of microcirculation, continuing for a long time, also lead to an increase in the parameters of procalcitonin.
In what cases is a blood test done on a PCT?
- Often prescribe PCT-analysis of blood, decodingwhich is available only to specialists, for the diagnosis of septic conditions and their severity. It is also indicative of suspicions of severe bacterial infections, fevers of unknown etiology.
- Monitoring the results of treatment of sepsis, shock states, the forecast of these pathologies requires the appointment of a study at PCT.
- To diagnose complications of an infectiouscharacter in patients after surgical interventions, organ transplants, during intensive therapy and finding on ventilators, often used for calcitonin analysis. For people with diagnoses of "neuroepenia" and "immunodepression", with unidentified diagnoses, the test is of great importance - for their clarification and evaluation of ongoing therapy.
- In the differential diagnosis of infectious and non-infectious diseases, research is sometimes crucial.
- Complications in the form of fungal and bacterial infections will also help to identify this blood test. Decoding the PCT will help determine what is the possible causative agent of a complication.
- Diseases such as pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, peritonitis, may also require the appointment of a study for procalcitonin.
The conditions for the analysis of this indicator
All patients on admission and ata medical institution appoint an overall blood test. Decoding PCT, the norm of which depends on the age and health of the patient, is not assigned as often. But research is becoming more popular every day, doctors understand its importance for clarifying the diagnosis and predicting the future state of the patient.
All biochemical studies are carried outon an empty stomach. And procalcitonin is no exception. The analysis should be submitted before 10 am. On the eve it is necessary to refrain from fatty, fried, salty foods and alcohol. If possible, exclude the use of medications. If they can not be canceled, you need to tell the names of the medicines in the laboratory.
On the day of the test, you can drink a glass of water, butno more, since we are talking about a "whimsical" substance, the level of which must be carefully monitored. It is important to take into account the day of the menstrual cycle in women, since the fair sex has certain days when it is most favorable to take blood for the study of the level of hormones. This information can be obtained from the doctor who ordered the analysis.
Decoding of the general blood test PCT
- If the indicator is below 0.5 ng / ml, this indicates that there is practically no risk for the development of severe sepsis.
- 0.5-2 ng / ml - the so-called gray zone,coincides with the syndrome of a systemic inflammatory response. But to say with confidence that the patient can develop a severe septic condition, it is impossible. It is recommended to repeat the analysis in six to twenty-four hours.
- If the value of procalcitonin is more than two ng / ml, then it is possible to suspect CER or severe sepsis.
- Above 10 ng / ml and more is a pronounced SSRM, which is the result of severe sepsis or shock. May lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The risk of death of the patient is very high.
Norms for adults and children
What is the lower indicator?
It is known that in children who receivedperinatal dexamethasone, when a PCT blood test is performed, the transcript is "lowered". In adults, it is not possible to detect a decreased procalcitonin index, since its normal values are too low.
What to do if a PCT blood test is performed, is the transcript "upgraded"?
After the results are knownanalyzes, it is easier for a doctor to select the necessary therapy that can save a person's life. If it is a case of a malignant process, then this study allows you to identify it in the early stages, which makes it possible to more quickly clarify the diagnosis with the help of other studies and undergo the necessary treatment in a timely manner. This increases the chances of recovery.
If the patient enters hospital with acute pancreatitis, but the indices of blood and urine amylase are extremely high, a study on procalcitonin will confirm pancreatic necrosis or exclude it.
Patients after organ transplant and othersserious surgical interventions that give rise to heat, you can do a PCT test to see if a fungal or bacterial infection has joined.
If in patients with a confirmed diagnosis"sepsis", the indicators are reduced, it indicates the effectiveness of the treatment. Patients who do not have a rise in procalcitonin in the blood, but also do not decrease, have a dubious prognosis. If the indicators, in spite of intensive therapy, not only do not decrease, but also grow, the patient has virtually no chance to survive.