Results of analysis for toxoplasmosis: decoding. Analysis for toxoplasmosis
Toxoplasmosis is, at first glance, harmlessdisease. Most people do not even know about the infection. However, its danger increases if the pathogenic microorganism enters the body of a pregnant woman, thus causing a serious threat to the normal course of pregnancy and development of the baby. From our article you will learn in detail about the methods of diagnosis of this disease. In addition, we will help you understand the results of the analysis for toxoplasmosis, the decoding of which is also indicated in the article.
What is toxoplasmosis?
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infectiousdisease. It can be treated only once, after which the body produces persistent, often lifelong, antibodies to a pathogenic microorganism. The disease is widespread. For example, in some countries, for example, Latin America and Africa, 90% of the population is infected, in Russia the incidence rate is 30%. Despite such high rates of global spread of toxoplasmosis, little attention is paid to prevention and diagnosis of infection. This is due to the fact that in most cases the disease is asymptomatic and does not have a significant negative effect on the health of an infected person. However, there are complex forms of toxoplasmosis, which affect the nervous system, eyes and respiratory tract of the patient.
Methods of infection with toxoplasmosis
Infection from person to person is impossible. The primary cause of infection are pets - cats. It is the intestinal environment of this animal that is a favorable environment for the reproduction of the microorganism. During excrement, infected cats excrete such a form of toxoplasmosis spores as oocysts. They can be swallowed by other animals, becoming temporary carriers. Infection can get on plants, including vegetables. Therefore, you can get infected with close contact with cats, non-compliance with personal hygiene standards, eating improperly processed meat, unwashed vegetables and fruits.
Than toxoplasmosis is dangerous during pregnancy?
Infection of a woman with toxoplasmosis directlyduring pregnancy - an extremely dangerous phenomenon for an unborn baby. Because of the high risk of possible complications, doctors at the planning stage of pregnancy are recommended to pass an analysis for toxoplasmosis. The norm, the interpretation of the analysis is described in detail below. The longer the gestation period, the higher the probability of infection to the fetus. But at the same time, the "more mature" the unborn baby, the more likely that the disease will not cause significant harm to his health. When the future mother is infected, the following complications are possible:
in the early stages, infection often leads to an undeveloped pregnancy or miscarriage;
the disease can provoke premature birth;
The fetus may have disorders from the nervous system, eyes, liver and brain.
With a negative result, a womanit is recommended that all methods of prevention be followed. If a positive analysis for toxoplasmosis is obtained, you can plan pregnancy after 3 months. During this short period, the body will develop antibodies to infection, and re-infection will become impossible.
Types of analyzes for toxoplasmosis
What tests for toxoplasmosis suggestmodern methods of diagnosis? There are only two of them: the enzyme immunoassay and the polymerase chain reaction method. The first is based on the development of the body of special antibodies to fight the disease. PCR diagnostics reveals the DNA of the causative agent of the disease.
Immunoenzyme method of diagnosis (ELISA)
To diagnose toxoplasmosis withbiochemical reactions of blood secrete the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) proteins. Antibodies of group M are developed in the body from the moment of infection and up to three weeks of infection, after which they gradually disappear. Accordingly, if immunoglobulins IgM were found during the examination, then this is a positive analysis for toxoplasmosis. In addition, the disease is acute.
Antibodies of group G (IgG) start to be developedon the third day of infection. During the course of illness, their number increases, trying to protect the body from parasitic intrusion. Unlike immunoglobulins of group M, IgG antibodies do not disappear from the body. They are found during the analysis for a long period, and in most cases - for life protect people from re-infection. If the antibodies of Group G display the results of the analysis for toxoplasmosis, decoding can have several options:
The infection was a long time ago. In this case, the detected IgG is not an obstacle to pregnancy.
Primary infection is possible. This condition is extremely dangerous for the development of the fetus. Additional examinations are required.
How to determine whether or not dangerous in this casetoxoplasmosis? Indicators of analysis of the so-called avidity (ability of immunoglobulins of group G to communicate with toxoplasma to neutralize it) will help the doctor correctly decipher the results. At the discretion of a specialist, PCR diagnostics of toxoplasmosis is also prescribed.
Deciphering the results of the analysis for toxoplasmosis by ELISA
How to decipher the analysis for toxoplasmosis,conducted by ELISA? To interpret the results, consult your doctor or use the table below. But do not forget that the final diagnosis can only be made by a specialist. Some results require additional tests to confirm or disprove the alleged infection.
|-||-||The organism has never been infectedtoxoplasmosis. Pregnant women are considered at risk of infection with this disease. A woman needs regular tests throughout the pregnancy period.|
|-||+||It is recommended that an analysis of avidityantibodies and PCR diagnostics. High avidity indicators and negative PCR result testify to the old infection and the resistant immunity to toxoplasmosis produced by the body.|
|+||-||Positive analysis for toxoplasmosis. To confirm the result, a test for avidity and PCR diagnostics is assigned.|
|+||+||Primary infection is possible. Additional surveys are needed.|
What is avidity?
As mentioned above, some resultsanalysis of toxoplasmosis, deciphering them sometimes is not possible without additional diagnostic procedures, requires an analysis of antibody avidity. The immunoglobulin binding activity with toxoplasma increases every day after infection. Accordingly, after conducting such an analysis, it is possible to reliably speak about an acute infectious process or its absence.
Explanation of the results of antibody avidity
How can I decode an avidity test for toxoplasmosis? The standard of analysis and deviation are indicated below:
Indicators of less than 40 units indicate a lowability to attach antibodies to toxoplasma. This means that the infection occurred within 2-3 days ago, and the disease is in the acute phase. This is the most unfavorable version of the pregnancy test for toxoplasmosis. Indicators of analysis require immediate contact with a doctor and drawing up a treatment regimen.
If the results indicate 41-59 units, they are considered transitional and require a second examination after 2 weeks.
The presence of more than 60 units as a result of the analysis onThe avidity of antibodies to toxoplasma means persistent immunity to the disease. In this case there is no chance of re-infection. This is the most favorable variant of the results for avidity.
It is worth considering the fact that they can significantlyto differentiate the results of the examination for toxoplasmosis. The norm of analyzes depends on the laboratory and the equipment used in it. Therefore, check the results of the diagnosis with those indicated in the form.
Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis by PCR
The polymerase chain reaction method is assigned todetermination of toxoplasmosis only according to indications or to confirm the results of ELISA. The essence of it is to detect the DNA of a pathogenic organism. The advantage of this method of diagnosis is high accuracy and the ability to detect the pathogen even with a small amount in the body.
How to decipher the analysis for toxoplasmosis, conducted by PCR? Interpret the result is simple:
Positive analysis indicates the presence of DNA toxoplasmosis in biological material. This means a primary infection and an acute form of the disease.
A negative result means no pathogen.
How to take an analysis for toxoplasmosis?
You are assigned an analysis for toxoplasmosis:how to take, do you need preliminary training? There are no specific guidelines for the collection of material for analysis. You just need to adhere to well-known recommendations before giving venous blood:
2 weeks before the proposed analysis, you should stop taking antibacterial drugs.
For 2 days before the procedure, limit the intake of fried, heavy food, alcohol and caffeine.
12 hours before the analysis, do not use aromatic gels and soap, perfume.
It can be concluded that it is not always unambiguousresults of analysis for toxoplasmosis. Decoding can be done only by a doctor. Incorrect interpretation threatens with a mistake in the diagnosis and incorrect or untimely treatment. This can have an extremely negative impact on the development of the future baby. Therefore, it is not necessary to decipher the results of tests for toxoplasmosis by yourself, consult a specialist for this.