Analysis for prolactin. Have all the causes of infertility been identified?
Today a fairly large number of familiesface infertility. Often its cause in both men and women are hormonal disorders. The most common of these is an increased amount of prolactin in the blood.
This hormone is synthesized by the anterior fractionpituitary gland, as well as in small amounts by the decidual membrane and endometrium. It, together with estradiol, affects the functioning and growth of the mammary glands, is responsible for lactation.
Also, prolactin has the following effects on the body:
- has a modeling effect on immunity;
- stimulates hair growth;
- promotes the activation of anabolic processes;
- regulates the water-salt metabolism (promotes absorption of calcium, delays the release of sodium and water by the kidneys);
- in increased quantity prolongs the existenceyellow body (luteal phase extends), inhibits ovulation, reduces the secretion of progesterone and estrogens (this mechanism prevents pregnancy and menstruation during breastfeeding);
- in high concentration inhibits the development and formation of spermatozoa, as well as the production of testosterone.
One of the first stages in the survey of men andwomen who are faced with infertility, is an analysis of prolactin. Today it is performed in any modern laboratory. However, this research should be prepared.
Within a day before him, exclude sex,stimulation of nipples, stress, exposure to high temperatures, severe stress. An hour before the analysis, refuse to smoke and at least 15 minutes before him sit in the waiting room to rest and calm down. If a person is nervous before going to the laboratory, then it is better to postpone the analysis of the hormone prolactin.
To conduct research recommend for 5 daycycle. It is better to donate blood before 10 am. Prolactin release is of a pulsating nature and depends on many factors. Therefore, when obtaining a result that goes beyond the limits of the norm, it is recommended to conduct the study several more times.
When making a diagnosis, a doctor should take into account not only the blood test for prolactin, but also the patient's complaints. For example, discharge from the nipples, infertility, decreased libido, cycle disorders.
So, to do the analysis for prolactin is necessary in the following cases:
- decreased potency and libido;
- severe menopause;
- violations of lactation after childbirth;
- pregnancy overstretch;
- chronic inflammation of the genitals;
- sexual infantilism;
- uterine bleeding;
- amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea;
- chest pain is of a cyclic nature;
The standards (in ng / ml) of this analysis are as follows:
- men: 2,7-17;
- 1 trimester: 3.3-43.1;
- 2 trimester: 13.1-166.1;
- 3 trimester: 13.1-318.1;
- follicular phase: 4,6-33;
- ovulation: 6.4-46.1;
- luteal phase: 5-40,1;
- menopause: 4-29.6.
Usually, on a form of the result, the laboratory indicatestheir norms, which may differ slightly from the values given above. In addition, other units of measurement - mU / l are used. To convert them to ng / ml, you need to divide by 21.
The level of prolactin in the blood of womenreproductive age varies throughout the cycle. In the luteal phase, which begins after ovulation and ends before menstruation, it is higher than in the follicular phase. Also, the concentration of the hormone changes during pregnancy. From 8 weeks it starts to increase and reaches its maximum by 6 months.
The level of prolactin is increased under the following conditions:
- lack of vitamin B6;
- autoimmune diseases;
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- kidney failure;
- diseases of the hypothalamus;
- tumor and dysfunction of the pituitary gland;
- a syndrome of a galactorrhea-amenorrhea.
Prolactin analysis will show the result below the norm in the following cases:
- X-ray therapy;
- removal of the pituitary gland;
- pregnancy overdelivery.
It is important to consider that the level of the hormone in the blood affects the intake of various drugs and substances. For example, beer increases the concentration of prolactin.
So, the analysis on prolactin is mandatory in the examination of infertility, because it affects the reproductive function in both women and men.