Elbow: structure, varieties of fractures, methods of treatment
From injuries (bruises, dislocations and fractures), notnobody is insured. They happen as a result of strong overloads, falls, impacts. Today, we will consider in detail the types and signs of fractures of the ulna. Immediately make a reservation that such a trauma does not happen too often. But the fracture of the ulna requires special attention, since it can worsen the mobility of the arm.
What is a fracture?
A fracture is a violation of the integrity of the bonetissue of the skeleton as a result of mechanical action, when the bone load exceeds its strength. It can be complete or partial, with a shift in the processes of the bones and without it. Sometimes they say that there is no fracture, just a crack. But this is a mistake! A crack is an incomplete fracture of the bone, since its integrity is still broken.
Fractures are traumatic or pathologicalcharacter. Traumatic injuries occur as a result of external influences, and pathological injuries result from the influence of painful abnormalities, for example, as a result of tuberculosis or a tumor.
Structure of the ulna
The ulna and radius are articulated andform the forearm. Bones go in parallel. The body of the ulna is slightly longer. In addition, it has two ends with protruding processes: the elbow and the coronoid (from above) and the subulate (from below). The processes are separated by a block-shaped notch, to which the block of the shoulder bone adjoins. The ulnar process of the ulna is a prominent place for attachment of the triceps and elbow muscles. The ventral process provides the articulation of the ulna and radius. The styloid protrudes in the lower part of the bone and is easily probed above the wrist. These tubular bones are located between the two joints:
- from above - ulnar;
- from below - radiocarpal.
The ulna and radius are articulated in this way,that provide pronation and supination of the forearm. Pronation is the ability to turn the forearm inward, while the palm looks down. Supination - turning outwards when the palm is turned up.
The structure of the ulna is very complicated. Trauma (fracture) can occur in any part.
Types of fractures of the ulna
The ulnar bone is most often damaged inathletes, children and the elderly. The reasons are banal. Athletes subject the bone to severe overload, children are excessively mobile, and their bones are not fully formed. Well, the old people are weakening due to age characteristics. Their bones acutely feel a lack of calcium and become more fragile. Although with a lack of calcium, the risk of injury rises in all categories of people.
In medicine, there are several types of fracture of the ulnar bones:
- Injury of the ulnar process. Usually the cause of this fracture is trauma. It happens to fall on the elbow or a direct blow. The fracture may be oblique or transverse. Depending on the condition of the muscles, different degrees of process bias can be observed.
- Fracture of Malgen. With such a trauma, a fracture of the process and a dislocation of the bones of the forearm occur. The arm assumes a half-bent position, the palm is deployed forward. The joint is enlarged and deformed. In addition to a traumatologist, a neurosurgeon or a child neurologist should be invited (in case the child is injured).
- Injury, which causes a dislocation of the head of the beam. Another name - the fracture of Monteji. Can be open or closed. The mobility of the joint is considerably limited. The forearm looks shortened from the injured side. In difficult cases, surgery is necessary. The ulna in case of a fracture of the Montague can be damaged by two types - flexion or extensor. The type of damage depends on the option of fixation.
- Fracture of elbow. One of the most common injuries. Movement in the joint is severely limited. Pain extends over the shoulder and forearm. There is swelling, a bruise is formed.
- Fracture of diaphysis. Diaphysis is the central part of the tubular bones. Displacements of debris are rare. This is hampered by an intact radius. There is a deformation of the hand.
The ulna in case of damage (fracture)looks somewhat deformed. Soft tissues around are swollen, movements are difficult and accompanied by painful sensations. Symptoms of fracture may differ, they depend on the subspecies of trauma.
Diagnosis of a fracture
In the case of a fall, a blow or a sudden tug, which causedsevere pain, it is necessary to appear to the traumatologist as quickly as possible. A fracture of the ulna can give serious consequences. To avoid this, it is important to get timely help.
Traumatologist performs visual inspectiondamaged limb and assigns an X-ray. According to the X-ray, the doctor determines the type of fracture. In addition, he can consider whether the ulna is displaced at the site of injury. On this depends on the treatment option fracture. In difficult cases, the victim will need surgery.
Diagnosis performed by a traumatologist allowsto reveal the complexity of the problem. If the fracture of the ulna or bone of the elbow joint is not complicated by the displacement, then the patient is impregnated with a plaster bandage and recommends a supporting bandage-scarf. A week after applying the gypsum, a control X-ray is prescribed to make sure that no displacement occurred. The plaster cast is removed not earlier than in 3 weeks.
In the case of displacement of bone fragments to the patientan operation is performed. This may be a resection of the proximal fragment or installation of a plate with screws to fix the injured bones. To immobilize the limb after the operation, use a gypsum longite.
To restore mobility after a fracture appoint massages, physiotherapy and special exercises.