Causes and consequences of the appearance of worms in humans. Diagnosis and treatment of tapeworms. The most common symptom of worms. Where to submit the test for worms
In the human body can parasitizedifferent types of helminths. Some of them are not particularly dangerous. Others are a serious threat to health, and sometimes life. Symptoms of worms in humans can be different. At the slightest suspicion of helminthiasis, you should consult a doctor.
What harm do parasites inflict on the body?
Often helminthiases occur without pronouncedmanifestations. However, worms release toxic substances that harm the human body. He suffers from mechanical damage to various organs and tissues in those places where helminths parasitize. In cases of migrations of larvae, the natural movement of blood and lymph can be disturbed, the obstruction of the bronchi or intestines may develop. For example, ascarids and whipworms can cause an allergic rash. The causative agents of trichocephalosis sharply reduce the percentage of hydrochloric acid in the composition of gastric juice. Because of this, its antiseptic properties are significantly reduced, the digestive process is disrupted, there is a predisposition to poisoning, which is very similar to food poisoning. Especially helminthiases are dangerous for children.
Worms in the child's body can causeviolations of physical and mental development, growth retardation and puberty. They can also provoke the development of anemia, impairment of memory and general well-being. In addition, helminthiases reduce the level of immunity.
Worms and cancer
According to many experts, more than 40 speciesparasites can cause cancer. As early as the beginning of the 20th century, it was observed that schistosomes provoke the development of cancer tumors of the liver and bladder. There are data on the development of cancer against the background of echinococcosis. For some helminths, the proliferation of host tissues is a prerequisite for their parasitization. Many researchers see the similarity of biochemical processes that occur in endoparasites and in malignant tumors.
The main symptoms of worms in humans
The main symptoms of helminthiases include: cough, disturbance of night sleep (screaming, groaning, throwing, nightmarish dreams, frequent awakening, crying, insomnia), fever, skin rash, short stomach pain, loss of body weight, loss of appetite or bouts of "wolf" hunger, nausea, vomiting, sensation of a tangle in the throat, flatulence, constant grumbling in the stomach, belching, hiccups, bad breath, salivation and grinding of teeth at night, unstable evacuations, propensity to constipation, itching and reddening of the skin around the anus. Another indirect symptom of worms is the appearance of mucus and blood in the stool. With helminthiasis, there may be a decrease in immunity. Symptoms of worms in humans are different. Only the doctor can make the correct diagnosis. Symptoms of worms in children are usually the same as in adults.
Diagnosis of helminthiases
First of all, to detect the presence of helminthsthe feces are analyzed for their eggs. However, not all types of helminthiases can be diagnosed in this way. Eggs of worms in feces with some types of diseases are not detected. In such cases, more complex analyzes may be required. For example, serological tests of blood for the presence of antigens to a certain type of helminth. The diagnosis is made when there are parasites or their markers in the body. And they are detected only in laboratory studies of blood, sputum, feces, etc. No symptom of worms is as reliable as the results of laboratory tests. At self-diagnostics sometimes there are funny cases. When eating bananas in feces, dark threads sometimes appear. Many people believe that these are black worms in feces, and they sound an alarm.
Treatment of helminthiases
Treat helminthiases persistently, patiently and for a long time. Sometimes you may need several courses of treatment. Especially if a person has been infected with several types of helminths. For the treatment of helminthic diseases, there are specific medications that are prescribed by the doctor, and proven folk remedies. The choice of drugs and treatment scheme depend on the type and severity of the helminthiasis. For the treatment used drugs such as Albendazole, Pirantel, Karbendatsim, Mebendazol, Piperazin and others. In helminthic diseases also prescribed fortifying drugs, antioxidants, probiotics, desensitizing therapy is carried out. If symptoms of human worms are observed, but the type of helminthiosis is not yet clear, universal medications can be used for treatment. It is recommended to eat carrots as much as possible, and drink carrot juice. Helps with helminthiasis infusion of birch buds.
Take 1 tsp. kidneys, pour a glass of water, boil in a water bath for about 30 minutes and insist 2 hours. Take infusion for one week for 1/2 cup twice a day. It is also recommended on an empty stomach to drink 200 g of ripe melon juice. Many people are interested in what is the best preparation for the prevention of worms? Only an expert can answer this question correctly. Independently you can use folk anthelminthes. Most of them are relatively safe for the body.
Prevention of worms in humans
Soap and water are our first friends. Protect against infection with eggs or larvae of helminths can be, adhering to the elementary rules of hygiene. You should wash your hands with soap before each meal, after going to the toilet, communicating with animals, gardening, playing on the playground.
Pure dwelling. In the kitchen: carefully wash dishes, knives and plates (they must be separate for vegetables, fish, meat and bread). It is necessary to irrigate the vegetables and fruits, which are planned to be consumed in raw form. Fish and meat need to be treated very well thermally. Very important is a full-fledged diet that will completely provide the body with all the necessary substances, especially vitamins C, D and A. The rooms must be regularly wet-cleaned. It should be understood that pets can be a source of infection, especially if there are small children in the family.
Safety system. The improvement of general immunity is of positive significance. A high level of immune response reduces the likelihood of invasion, hinders the migration of helminths throughout the body, and shortens their life span. If the human immune system is strong, then it is much easier to cope with parasites. To strengthen immunity, take tinctures of eleutherococcus, ginseng, rhodiola rosea, magnolia vinegar; consume garlic, onions, horseradish. Once every six months you need to be checked for helminths, under the guidance of a doctor, preventive courses, taking medicines of a wide spectrum of action. What drug for the prevention of worms is better, again, only the doctor will determine.
In the intestines of the pigs, a larva appears from the egg,which is called oncosphere. It is a ball, consisting of a huge number of cells, which is equipped with six chitinous hooks. Actively working with them, larvae penetrate into the blood, and then transferred to the muscles and internal organs. There they turn into larval blisters - cysticerci (Finns).
You can see small pits on them, insidewhich hid the undeveloped suckers and hooks. This is the future head of the worm (scolex), pulled inward. In the human intestine, the head goes out. Suckers and hooks, she firmly clings to the walls, and the tapeworm begins to grow new segments. It happens that more than one such parasite lives in the human body. There is a well-known fact that when the course of treatment was performed, 104 head of the chain passed away and a huge number of segments (total length - 128 m).
An adult copy of this tapeworm has a bodywhite and ribbon-shaped. Dimensions: from 1.5 to 6 meters. It is much easier to get rid of this parasite than from the bull-calf, but it is much more dangerous, because it is capable of parasitizing not only in the human intestine.
Finns of this worm can develop in the brain,liver and even in the eyeballs. Such cases are almost incurable and often result in the death of the patient. How to determine if these types of worms are present in the body? The main manifestations of the disease: diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite. However, the basis for the diagnosis is an analysis of the worm.
Bovine tapeworm is larger than pork. In length it reaches 10 m and is considered the largest chain that lives in the human body. This parasite is the cause of the disease of teniarinchiasis. The bovine tapeworm is similar in structure to the pork, but there are no hooks on its head. In the arsenal of the worm, there are only suckers. Each segment can reproduce. It has a length of 1.5-3 cm, and a width of 5-7 mm. Sexually mature segments are able to crawl independently from the anus of the host, move along his body and underwear. The life cycle of bovine tapeworm is similar to that of pork, but the eggs of this parasite can not develop in the human body. Therefore, the final stage of infection with bovine tapeworm is absent. Unlike the pork parasite, the bovine does not give such a dangerous complication as cysticercosis. If you do not get rid of it, the helminth can live in the human body for more than 18 years, generating up to 600 million eggs per year, and 11 billion for a complete life cycle. How to get rid of tapeworms, the doctor decides after the diagnosis of the disease. Infection with a bulbar is usually manifested by gastric disorders, unstable stools, allergic reactions, abdominal pain, and impaired functioning of the nervous system. Prevention of worms in humans involves eating thoroughly roasted or boiled meat.
Lovers of sushi and generally raw fish canto catch a ribbon worm - a wide ribbon. The disease that causes this parasite, called diphyllobothriasis. Glist in the small intestine can parasitize up to 28 years. This is the largest of human parasites. In length, it can reach 10, and often 20 meters. If there is insufficient thermal treatment of fish products or the use of frozen stroganina, and also insufficiently salted caviar, infection with this species of helminths can occur. The final owner of the Ribete is a man. In the intestine, sexually mature larvae attach themselves to the walls and eventually become adults. Symptoms of worms in humans are manifested in the form of anemia (due to a lack of vitamin B12) and general intoxication. The accumulation of dozens of helminths can provoke intestinal obstruction, which often has to be eliminated in an operative way. As a rule, the prevention of diphyllobothriasis is a careful thermal treatment of freshwater fish. Complete destruction of this parasite in nature is not yet possible.
Echinococcus is a worm that parasitizes inthe human body is only in the stage of the Finn. The intermediate hosts of this helminth are animals. Glaucoma echinococcus is the cause of echinococcosis disease. Helminths can live in any internal organ - lungs, brain, tubular bones, but most often parasitize worms in the liver. Symptoms of echinococcosis in the early stages of recognition is not easy, because helminths may not manifest themselves for a long time.
Echinococcus is a small worm (up to 0.5 cm). Its posterior segment is the largest. It is more than half the body of the parasite. Separating, he can move independently.
Finn echinococcus has the form of a bladder. At this stage, the worm parasitizes on cattle, dogs and rabbits.
Adult segments of echinococcus can come out oforganism of the dog. They cause itching in the perianal zone. The wool of the animal is intensely contaminated with eggs of the parasite. These are the main symptoms of worms in dogs. People can get infected with echinococcus by contact with them. Mature segments of parasites can crawl out of the body. On open soil, grass, they actively lay eggs. Ruminant animals swallow them together with plants. Then in the intestine, the eggs turn into oncospheres, which penetrate the bloodstream. In this way they enter the lungs, the liver, the brain and other organs. There they are transformed into Finns, which have a rather complex structure.
Bubbles are surrounded by two protective shells -internal embryonic and external chitinous. Inside, they are filled with a liquid in which daughter bubbles can be located. In humans, the weight of Finns can reach 1 kg. If the daughter bubbles grow outward, they eventually destroy the internal organ. Without surgery, a person can die. Finns can develop in the body for several years. When the bladder ruptures, the body is poisoned by a toxic liquid.
Ascariasis is a very common disease. Parasites, which are its cause, live in the intestine. The length of males of the helminth reaches 25 cm, and the female - 40 cm. Ascarids lack attachment organs. They constantly move towards food and in this way are held in the human intestine. Females lay more than 200 thousand eggs every day, which fall into the external environment with the feces of the host. Eggs of ascarids are quite large, oval in shape, stable in the external environment. They are protected by 5 shells, which can destroy only alcohol, ether, gasoline, boiling water and direct sunlight.
Unlike mature individuals, larvaerequires oxygen. In the human body, they fall with greens, fruits and vegetables. In the intestine, the membrane dissolves. Through the walls of the intestine, the larvae enter the bloodstream, which carries them throughout the body. They penetrate the liver, atria and ventricles of the heart, into the pulmonary alveoli. Also, holes are made in the capillary walls, and then the ascarid worms are introduced into the bronchi and trachea. Symptoms in this case are cough and sputum discharge. When coughing, larvae can get into the pharynx, where they swallow the host. In the small intestine they reach maturity. This process takes about 75 days. A widespread phenomenon is the emergence of helminths with vomit masses. This always works hard not only on the patient, but also on others.
Helminths poison the body with toxicproducts of exchange. Symptoms of worms ascaris: pain in the intestines, digestive disorders, decreased efficiency, loss of appetite, allergic reactions. In the lungs, larvae can cause hemorrhages and pneumonia. When a very large number of eggs enter the body, a lethal outcome is possible. Pregnant larvae can penetrate the placenta, and then penetrate into the body of the fetus. If the ascarid in the body is too much, they can clog the intestine. In this case, an operation may be required. Prophylaxis of ascariasis implies observance of elementary rules of personal hygiene. It is very good to wash your hands before eating (especially after a street and contact with animals), as well as fruits and vegetables. It is necessary to protect food from insects (flies, cockroaches, etc.).
These worms cause the disease enterobiosis. It is very common and most often occurs in childhood. Pinworm is a small worm of white color. Length of females reaches 1 cm, and males - 5 mm. At the anterior end of the body of the parasite is a swelling, which surrounds the oral opening. With the help of it, the worms stick to the walls. They feed on food that is in the intestines, and can swallow blood. These parasites live in the appendix and the caecum. During operations with appendicitis, worm clusters are often found. Symptoms of the disease manifest themselves as follows. Females crawl out of the anus and lay up to 13,000 eggs on the skin of the perineum, thighs and buttocks. Because of this itching starts. When combing the skin, eggs fall on the hands of a person. The main symptom of enterobiasis is itching in the anus. Most often it starts at night and in the evening. How to get rid of worms to the child, doctors will prompt. But, as a rule, it is enough for this two-time intake of drugs like "Vermox" with an interval of ten days. And compliance with the rules of personal hygiene and careful processing of bed linen and clothes.
Alveococcus and dwarf tselein
Alveococcosis is not as common asechinococcosis, but the disease proceeds almost like an oncological disease. First of all, the liver suffers, where the size of the nodes of the alveococcus can reach 15 cm in diameter. This disease is extremely difficult to identify in time. The diagnosis is usually made in the late stages, when even surgery can not help a person.
The structure of the dwarf chain is similar to the restsolitaires, but its dimensions are much smaller. The length of the helminth does not exceed 2 cm. This parasite very often affects children of young age. The disease is asymptomatic, with the exception of some cases.
This helminth takes the 3rd place in the degreeprevalence. Infection causes the disease of trichocephalosis. The glistes parasitize in the intestine: in the appendix, the cecum, the first part of the large intestine. Helminths with the anterior ends of their bodies damage the walls and mucous membranes. They feed on blood. The eggs of the parasite resemble a lemon with cork on the poles. Females lay them directly in the intestine. With the feces they come out. In the external environment, larvae develop. Intermediate hosts do not have a parasite. In the human body helminths get with unwashed fruits and vegetables, with raw water, through dirty hands. Vlasoglavy can parasitize in the human body to 5 years. Single copies do not show themselves. Mass infection can lead to disruption of the digestive system and loss of appetite. The person has pain, often there are constipation and diarrhea. In the nervous system, malfunctions begin: convulsive seizures, dizziness. On the damaged walls of the intestine, secondary infection often develops. These helminths often provoke appendicitis.
Helminth in people is called a cat's fluke, andbiologists - opisthorchis. The worm lives in the organisms of fish, cats and humans. The results of his life are: inflammatory processes, blockage of the biliary and hepatic ducts, allergic reactions. People and cats are infected by a parasite when using raw fish or not sufficiently thermally treated. The main risk group are lovers of sushi and stroganina.
The scientific name of this parasite is the paragonimus. Its intermediate hosts are cancers. As a rule, they are cooked until they turn red. However, not everyone knows that redness is not an indication that all bacteria and worm larvae have died. Therefore, the crayfish should be boiled more carefully. When ingested, larvae enter the lungs, where they develop in adults. The infected people suffer from cough with abundant sputum. It is often colored with blood. The mucus contains eggs of worms. In children this parasite can lead to pleurisy. This helminth is especially common in the Far Eastern region.